Demographics of the Netherlands

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Dutch inhabitants)

Demographics of the Netherlands
Population pyramid of the Netherlands in 2023
Population17,821,419 (January 2023) (67th)
Density424 per km2 (33rd)
Growth rate0.29% (155th)
Birth rate10.2 births/1,000 (2021)
Death rate9.6 deaths/1,000 (2022)
Life expectancy81.6 years (16th)
 • male80.1 years
 • female83.1 years
Fertility rate1.49 children/woman (2022)
Age structure
0–14 years16.1%
15–64 years64.1%
65 and over20.2%
Sex ratio
Total0.98 male/female
At birth1.05 male/female
Under 151.05 male/female
15–64 years1.02 male/female
65 and over0.83 male/female
Language
OfficialDutch, Frisian
Population growth between 1000–2021

Demographic features of the population of the Netherlands include population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the population, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Population[edit]

The Netherlands is the 67th most populated country in the world. As of January 2023, the Netherlands has a population of 17,821,419.[1]

Between 1900 and 1950 the population almost doubled from 5.14 to 10.11 million people. From 1950 to 2000 the population increased from 10.11 to 15.92 million people, increasing by a smaller proportion but, still, at an impressive pace for a European country, recording a growth of 57.45% over a 50-year time span.[2]

Of countries with at least 7.5 million people, The Netherlands is the 4th most densely populated, and is the 33rd most densely populated in the world overall. It is the 5th most densely populated country in Europe; the first four are microstates. The 17,821,419 million Dutch inhabitants are concentrated on an area of 41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi) including water surface, the land surface being 33,895 km2 (13,087 sq mi). This means that the country has a population density of 526/km2 (1,360/sq mi). The density of 500 inhabitants/km2 was reached in the first half of 2014.

As a result of these demographic characteristics, the Netherlands has had to plan its land use strictly. Since 1946 the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment has been occupied with the national coordination of land use. Because of its high population density the Netherlands has also reclaimed land from the sea by poldering. Between 1927 and 1968 an entire province - Flevoland - was created. As of May 2023 it houses 447,193 people.[3] Because of these policies, the Dutch have been able to combine high levels of population density with extremely high levels of agricultural production.

Even though the Netherlands is so densely populated, it has no municipalities with a population over one million. Nevertheless, the two largest municipalities of the country do score well over a million if the complete city region is counted, thus including the neighbouring satellite towns that often are physically connected to the main municipality. Moreover, the "four big cities" (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) can in many ways be regarded as a single metropolitan area, the Randstad ("rim city" or "edge city") with over 7.5 million inhabitants around an agricultural "green heart" (Groene Hart).

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[4]

  • One birth every 3 minutes
  • One death every 4 minutes
  • One net migrant every 31 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 11 minutes

[5]

Growth rate[edit]

0.37% (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 168th

Fertility[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1000 369,000—    
1300 881,000+0.29%
1500 1,090,000+0.11%
1600 1,540,000+0.35%
1700 2,000,000+0.26%
1800 2,000,000+0.00%
1900 5,104,000+0.94%
1910 5,858,000+1.39%
1920 6,754,000+1.43%
1930 7,825,000+1.48%
1940 8,834,000+1.22%
1950 10,026,773+1.27%
1960 11,417,254+1.31%
1970 12,957,621+1.27%
1980 14,091,014+0.84%
1990 14,892,574+0.55%
2000 15,863,950+0.63%
2010 16,574,989+0.44%
2020 17,424,978+0.50%
Source: Our World in Data[6] and Statistics Netherlands[7]

The Dutch population is ageing. Furthermore, life expectancy has increased because of developments in medicine, and in addition to this, the Netherlands has seen increasing immigration. Despite these developments combined with the population boom after the Second World War, the low birth rate has caused extremely low population growth: 2005 saw the lowest absolute population growth since 1900.

This demographic development has consequences for health care and social security policy. As the Dutch population ages, the proportion of people of working age, as a percentage of the entire population, decreases. Important policy advisors like the CBS (Statistical Office) and the CPB (Planning Office) have pointed out that this will cause problems with the current system of old age pensions: fewer people will work to pay for old age pensions, while there will be more people receiving those pensions. Furthermore, the costs of health care are also projected to increase. These developments have caused several cabinets, notably the second Balkenende cabinet to reform the system of health care and social security to increase participation in the labour market and make people more conscious of the money they spend on health care.

In 2003, the annual birth rate per thousand was highest in the province of Flevoland (15.9). The overall lifelong Total fertility rate (TFR), was highest in the province of Flevoland (2.0) and lowest in the province of Limburg (1.6). The municipality with the highest TFR was Urk (3.23) followed by Valkenburg (2.83), Graafstroom (2.79) and Staphorst (2.76). The lowest TFRs were recorded in Vaals (1.11) and Thorn (1.21).[8]

The total population at December 31, 2006 was 16,356,914. The population loss due to net emigration was 35,502 (an estimated 40-50% of emigrants were ethnic non-Dutch).

In 2007, there were 117,000 immigrants (including 7000 Germans, 6000 Poles, 5000 Bulgarians, 3000 Turks and 2000 Moroccans) and 123,000 emigrants. Nearly half the emigrants were native Dutch, followed at a distance by nearly 5000 Poles and more than 3000 Germans. There was an observable increase in net immigration from the former USSR, Bulgaria and Romania.[9]

The annual death rate was lowest in the municipalities of Valkenburg (2.9 per 1000), Zeewolde (3.2), Renswoude (3.4), Westervoort and Zeevang (both 3.9). The highest annual death rates were recorded in Warmond (22.3 per 1000), Laren (19.9) and Doorn (18.8).[10]

16.4% of the total births in 2003 were to parents of non-European origin, although they account for only 12.4% of the population in the 25-34 age group. For example, 3.8% of the births were ethnic Moroccan, although they were only 2.26% of the 25-34 age group. Respective figures were 3.27% and 3.0% for Turks. The TFR for Moroccans in 2003 was 3.3 while the general TFR was 1.73. TFR was 2.3 for Turks, 1.7 for Surinamese, 1.8 for Arubans, 3.0 for Africans and 1.8 for Americans.[11] (These figures compare with a figure of around 2.1 required to maintain a stable overall population figure.)

According to Statistics Netherlands, for the year 2007, the TFR for those born in Netherlands was 1.72[12] (1.65 in 2000). TFR of Moroccan immigrants was 2.87 (3.22 in 2000) and that of Turkish immigrants was 1.88 (2.18 in 2000).[13]

The total fertility rate is the annual average number of children born per woman over her lifespan. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[14]

Years 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850[14]
Total Fertility Rate in the Netherlands 5.11 5.09 5.06 5.04 5.02 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.89
Years 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[14]
Total Fertility Rate in the Netherlands 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.68 4.75
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[14]
Total Fertility Rate in the Netherlands 4.83 4.9 4.98 4.99 5.01 5.02 5.04 5.05 5.09 5.12
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[14]
Total Fertility Rate in the Netherlands 5.16 5.19 5.23 5.27 5.31 5.34 5.38 5.42 5.39 5.35
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[14]
Total Fertility Rate in the Netherlands 5.32 5.28 5.25 5.23 5.21 5.18 5.16 5.14 5.11 5.07
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[14]
Total Fertility Rate in the Netherlands 5.04 5 4.97 4.93 4.88 4.84 4.79 4.75 4.6

1.78 children born/woman (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 157th

11.0 births/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 178th

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

29.8 years (2017 est.)

Life expectancy[edit]

Life expectancy in the Netherlands since 1850
Life expectancy in the Netherlands since 1960 by gender

Sources: Our World In Data

1850–1950

Years 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 39.8 40.0 38.6 38.6 38.6 34.5 38.8 35.5 34.7 30.9 36.9
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 36.4 38.3 38.3 37.5 36.4 33.6 39.2 37.7 40.4 37.3
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 32.9 36.5 39.2 41.3 38.2 40.4 42.0 41.1 41.9 40.3
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 42.8 43.7 42.3 41.3 43.2 41.9 44.9 44.2 44.3 44.4
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 44.2 43.9 45.8 46.9 46.6 48.6 49.4 49.1 49.3 48.4
Years 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 48.7 50.6 51.5 50.9 52.1 52.7 53.5 52.7 54.9 55.1
Years 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 53.1 57.2 57.3 57.2 57.2 56.2 55.6 47.6 55.0 57.8
Years 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 59.7 59.8 62.0 62.9 63.1 63.0 62.6 63.7 62.2 64.7
Years 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 64.3 65.4 66.0 66.6 66.5 66.7 67.0 67.4 67.7 65.4
Years 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 65.3 65.8 64.4 61.3 55.4 67.6 69.5 71.1 70.3 71.4
total population: 81.9 years (2020 est.) Country comparison to the world: 30th
male: 79.7 years (2020 est.)
female: 84.3 years (2020 est.)

Age structure[edit]

Animated population pyramid of the Netherlands: 1950-2020
0-14 years: 16.11% (male 1,425,547 /female 1,358,894)
15-24 years: 11.91% (male 1,049.000 /female 1,008,763)
25-54 years: 38.47% (male 3,334,064 /female 3,313,238)
55-64 years: 13.69% (male 1,177,657/female 1,188,613)
65 years and over: 19.82% (male 1,558,241/female 1,866,380) (2020 est.)

Median age[edit]

total: 42.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 32nd
male: 41.6 years
female: 44.0 years (2020 est.)

Cities and population density[edit]

 
Largest municipalities in the Netherlands
Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.
Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Rotterdam
Rotterdam
1 Amsterdam North Holland 905,234 11 Apeldoorn Gelderland 165,648 The Hague
The Hague
Utrecht
Utrecht
2 Rotterdam South Holland 656,050 12 Arnhem Gelderland 164,096
3 The Hague South Holland 552,995 13 Haarlem North Holland 162,914
4 Utrecht Utrecht 361,924 14 Enschede Overijssel 160,383
5 Eindhoven North Brabant 238,478 15 Haarlemmermeer North Holland 159,346
6 Groningen Groningen 234,649 16 Amersfoort Utrecht 158,712
7 Tilburg North Brabant 224,702 17 Zaanstad North Holland 157,215
8 Almere Flevoland 218,096 18 's-Hertogenbosch North Brabant 156,599
9 Breda North Brabant 184,716 19 Zwolle Overijssel 130,872
10 Nijmegen Gelderland 179,073 20 Leeuwarden Friesland 127,088

Functional urban areas[edit]

Population density in the Netherlands by municipality. The largest urban area, the Randstad is clearly visible along the west coast.

"Functional urban areas"[17] are a type of urban areas with large populations where commuters from nearby areas work in the core area. There are several functional urban areas officially identified in the Netherlands. The largest ones (with populations over 300,000) are listed below, which count the populations of the core city and their "commuting zones".[18]

Functional urban areas Population
(2015)
Amsterdam-Haarlem-Almere 2,751,000
Rotterdam-Dordrecht 1,805,000
The Hague-Delft 1,052,000
Utrecht 875,000
Eindhoven 736,000
Groningen 474,000
Arnhem 420,000
Enschede 401,000
Breda 367,000
Zwolle 350,000
Leiden 339,000
Nijmegen 322,000
Tilburg 310,000

Vital statistics[edit]

The following table presents the evolution since 1900; click on "show" to display the table:[19]

Population (Januari 1) Live births (total) Deaths (total) Natural change (total) Birth rate
(per mille)
Mortality rate
(per mille)
Natural change
(per mille)
Crude migration change
(per mille)
TFR
IMR
(per mille)
Life expectancy males Life expectancy females
1900 5,142,000 162,611 92,043 70,568 31.6 17.9 13.7 1.7 4.45 155.2
1901 5,221,000 168,380 89,967 78,413 32.3 17.2 15.0 1.1 4.53 149.3
1902 5,305,000 168,728 86,248 82,480 31.8 16.3 15.5 0.3 4.46 129.9
1903 5,389,000 170,108 83,933 86,175 31.6 15.6 16.0 -1.0 4.42 135.1
1904 5,470,000 171,495 87,091 84,404 31.4 15.9 15.4 -0.6 4.38 136.9
1905 5,551,000 170,767 85,016 85,751 30.8 15.3 15.4 -0.8 4.29 130.9
1906 5,632,000 170,952 83,259 87,693 30.4 14.8 15.6 -1.8 4.23 127.1
1907 5,710,000 171,506 82,250 89,256 30.0 14.4 15.6 -2.3 4.18 111.9
1908 5,786,000 171,861 86,936 84,925 29.7 15.0 14.7 -1.6 4.13 124.8
1909 5,862,000 170,766 80,283 90,483 29.1 13.7 15.4 -9.1 4.04 99.1
1910 5,899,000 168,894 79,984 88,910 28.6 13.6 15.1 -2.0 3.94 107.9
1911 5,976,000 166,527 86,786 79,741 27.9 14.5 13.3 -0.2 3.81 137.2
1912 6,054,000 170,269 74,647 95,622 28.1 12.3 15.8 -0.8 3.84 87.0
1913 6,145,000 173,541 75,867 97,674 28.2 12.3 15.9 1.3 3.85 91.4
1914 6,251,000 176,831 77,739 99,092 28.3 12.4 15.9 2.2 3.86 94.8
1915 6,364,000 167,426 79,613 87,813 26.3 12.5 13.8 4.4 3.59 86.8
1916 6,480,000 172,572 84,024 88,548 26.6 13.0 13.7 6.7 3.64 84.5
1917 6,612,000 173,112 87,273 85,839 26.2 13.2 13.0 1.1 3.59 86.8
1918 6,705,000 167,636 115,440 52,196 25.0 17.2 7.8 -0.8 3.47 103.9
1919 6,752,000 164,447 89,646 74,801 24.4 13.3 11.1 -1.0 3.36 94.0
1920 6,820,000 192,987 81,525 111,462 28.3 12.0 16.3 -1.5 3.89 83.3
1921 6,921,000 189,546 77,002 112,544 27.4 11.1 16.3 -0.3 3.75 86.1
1922 7,032,000 181,886 80,381 101,505 25.9 11.4 14.4 2.4 3.54 77.6
1923 7,150,000 187,512 72,809 114,703 26.2 10.2 16.0 -0.1 3.55 66.8
1924 7,264,000 182,430 71,167 111,263 25.1 9.8 15.3 -1.3 3.39 60.6
1925 7,366,000 178,545 72,121 106,424 24.2 9.8 14.4 0 3.26 58.4
1926 7,472,000 177,498 73,357 104,141 23.8 9.8 13.9 0 3.18 61.1
1927 7,576,000 175,098 77,614 97,484 23.1 10.2 12.9 0.6 3.08 58.7
1928 7,678,000 179,028 73,816 105,212 23.3 9.6 13.7 -0.3 3.09 52.3
1929 7,781,000 177,216 83,224 93,992 22.8 10.7 12.1 1.1 3.00 59.0
1930 7,884,000 182,310 71,682 110,628 23.1 9.1 14.0 0.6 3.03 50.9
1931 7,999,000 177,387 77,048 100,339 22.2 9.6 12.5 2.9 2.88 49.6
1932 8,122,000 178,525 73,059 105,466 22.0 9.0 13.0 1.2 2.83 46.3
1933 8,237,000 171,289 72,096 99,193 20.8 8.8 12.0 0.6 2.66 43.9
1934 8,341,000 172,214 70,164 102,050 20.6 8.4 12.2 -1.2 2.63 42.6
1935 8,433,000 170,425 73,660 96,765 20.2 8.7 11.5 -1.7 2.57 40.0
1936 8,516,000 171,675 73,923 97,752 20.2 8.7 11.5 -1.9 2.51 38.9
1937 8,598,000 170,220 75,516 94,704 19.8 8.8 11.0 -1.0 2.53 38.1
1938 8,684,000 178,422 77,043 101,379 20.5 8.9 11.7 -0.5 2.63 36.5
1939 8,781,000 180,917 75,841 105,076 20.6 8.6 12.0 -0.8 2.64 33.7
1940 8,879,000 184,846 87,722 97,124 20.8 9.9 10.9 -1.2 2.67 39.1
1941 8,965,000 181,959 89,716 92,243 20.3 10.0 10.3 -1.7 2.61 43.6
1942 9,042,000 189,975 76,040 113,935 21.0 8.4 12.6 -6.0 2.71 39.5
1943 9,102,000 209,379 91,438 117,941 23.0 10.0 13.0 -5.1 2.98 40.1
1944 9,174,000 219,946 108,087 111,859 24.0 11.8 12.2 -2.6 3.13 46.3
1945 9,262,000 209,607 141,398 68,209 22.6 15.3 7.4 10.0 2.96 79.7
1946 9,423,000 284,456 80,151 204,305 30.2 8.5 21.7 0.2 3.97 38.7
1947 9,629,000 267,348 77,646 189,702 27.8 8.1 19.7 -1.9 3.70 33.5
1948 9,800,000 247,923 72,459 175,464 25.3 7.4 17.9 -2.0 3.41 29.3
1949 9,956,000 236,177 81,077 155,100 23.7 8.1 15.6 -8.5 3.22 26.8
1950 10,026,773 [20] 229,718 75,929 153,789 22.7 7.5 15.2 2.1 3.10 26.7 70.3 72.6
1951 10,200,280 228,405 77,560 150,845 22.3 7.6 14.7 -2.1 3.05 26.7 70.2 72.8
1952 10,328,343 231,888 76,346 155,542 22.3 7.4 15.0 -4.6 3.09 24.1 71.0 73.3
1953 10,435,631 227,964 80,901 147,063 21.7 7.7 14.0 -3.0 3.03 23.7 70.4 73.0
1954 10,550,737 228,173 79,623 148,550 21.5 7.5 14.0 -1.7 3.03 22.6 71.0 73.8
1955 10,680,023 229,222 81,708 147,514 21.3 7.6 13.7 -0.4 3.03 21.6 70.9 71.4
1956 10,821,661 231,492 84,809 146,683 21.3 7.8 13.5 -1.0 3.05 20.2 71.0 74.1
1957 10,957,040 233,892 82,961 150,931 21.2 7.5 13.7 -1.0 3.08 18.4 71.4 74.6
1958 11,095,726 236,859 84,491 152,368 21.2 7.6 13.6 2.8 3.11 18.5 71.5 74.8
1959 11,278,024 242,518 86,072 156,446 21.4 7.6 13.8 -1.7 3.17 18.1 71.2 75.2
1960 11,417,245 239,128 87,825 151,303 20.8 7.7 13.2 -1.0 3.12 17.9 71.4 75.3
1961 11,556,008 247,407 88,321 159,086 21.3 7.6 13.7 0.6 3.22 17.0 71.5 75.7
1962 11,721,416 246,150 93,969 152,181 20.7 7.9 12.8 1.6 3.18 17.0 71.0 75.6
1963 11,889,962 249,879 95,734 154,145 20.8 8.0 12.8 0 3.19 15.8 71.0 75.8
1964 12,041,970 250,914 93,437 157,477 20.5 7.7 12.9 1.2 3.17 14.8 71.3 76.3
1965 12,212,269 245,216 98,026 147,190 19.8 7.9 11.9 1.6 3.04 14.4 71.1 76.1
1966 12,377,194 239,611 100,516 139,095 19.1 8.0 11.1 1.7 2.90 14.7 71.0 76.1
1967 12,535,307 238,678 99,792 138,886 18.9 7.9 11.0 -1.0 2.81 13.4 71.2 76.6
1968 12,661,095 237,112 104,989 132,123 18.6 8.3 10.4 0.4 2.72 13.6 70.9 76.4
1969 12,798,346 247,588 107,615 139,973 19.1 8.3 10.8 1.6 2.75 13.2 70.9 76.3
1970 12,957,621 238,912 109,619 129,293 18.3 8.4 9.9 2.6 2.57 12.7 70.8 76.5
1971 13,119,430 227,180 110,243 116,937 17.1 8.3 8.8 2.6 2.36 12.1 71.0 76.8
1972 13,269,563 214,133 113,576 100,557 16.1 8.5 7.5 1.4 2.15 11.7 70.8 76.5
1973 13,387,623 194,993 110,682 84,311 14.5 8.2 6.3 1.4 1.90 11.5 71.3 77.1
1974 13,491,020 185,982 109,250 76,732 13.7 8.1 5.7 2.3 1.77 11.3 71.6 77.6
1975 13,599,092 177,876 113,737 64,139 13.0 8.3 4.7 5.2 1.66 10.6 71.5 77.7
1976 13,733,578 177,090 114,454 62,636 12.9 8.3 4.5 1.4 1.63 10.7 71.5 77.9
1977 13,814,495 173,296 110,093 63,203 12.5 7.9 4.6 1.4 1.58 9.5 72.1 78.5
1978 13,897,874 175,550 114,415 61,135 12.6 8.2 4.4 1.9 1.58 9.6 72.0 78.5
1979 13,985,526 174,979 112,565 62,414 12.5 8.0 4.4 3.1 1.56 8.7 72.5 78.9
1980 14,091,014 181,294 114,279 67,015 12.8 8.1 4.7 3.6 1.60 8.6 72.5 79.2
1981 14,208,586 178,569 115,515 63,054 12.5 8.1 4.4 1.0 1.56 8.3 72.7 79.3
1982 14,285,829 172,071 117,264 54,807 12.0 8.2 3.8 0 1.50 8.3 72.8 79.4
1983 14,339,551 170,246 117,761 52,485 11.9 8.2 3.7 0.1 1.47 8.4 72.9 79.6
1984 14,394,589 174,436 119,812 54,624 12.1 8.3 3.8 0.3 1.49 8.3 73.0 79.7
1985 14,453,833 178,136 122,704 55,432 12.3 8.5 3.8 1.4 1.51 8.0 73.1 79.7
1986 14,529,430 184,513 125,307 59,206 12.7 8.6 4.1 1.8 1.55 7.7 73.1 79.6
1987 14,615,125 186,667 122,199 64,468 12.7 8.3 4.4 2.4 1.56 7.6 73.5 80.1
1988 14,714,948 186,647 124,163 62,484 12.6 8.4 4.2 1.9 1.55 6.8 73.7 80.2
1989 14,805,240 188,979 128,905 60,086 12.7 8.7 4.0 1.9 1.55 6.8 73.7 79.9
1990 14,892,574 197,965 128,824 69,115 13.2 8.6 4.6 3.3 1.62 7.1 73.8 80.1
1991 15,010,445 198,665 129,958 68,707 13.2 8.6 4.6 3.3 1.61 6.5 74.1 80.2
1992 15,129,150 196,734 129,887 66,847 13.0 8.6 4.4 2.9 1.59 6.3 74.3 80.3
1993 15,239,182 195,748 137,795 57,953 12.8 9.0 3.8 2.9 1.57 6.3 74.0 80.0
1994 15,341,553 195,611 133,471 62,140 12.7 8.7 4.0 1.4 1.57 5.6 74.6 80.3
1995 15,424,122 190,513 135,675 54,838 12.3 8.8 3.5 1.0 1.531 5.5 74.6 80.4
1996 15,493,889 189,521 137,561 51,960 12.2 8.9 3.3 1.4 1.529 5.7 74.7 80.4
1997 15,567,107 192,443 135,783 56,660 12.3 8.7 3.6 2.0 1.562 5.0 75.2 80.6
1998 15,654,192 199,412 137,968 61,444 12.7 8.8 3.9 2.9 1.628 5.2 75.2 80.7
1999 15,760,225 200,445 140,487 59,958 12.7 8.9 3.8 2.8 1.652 5.2 75.3 80.5
2000 15,863,950 206,619 140,527 66,092 13.0 8.8 4.2 3.6 1.723 5.1 75.5 80.6
2001 15,987,075 202,603 140,377 62,226 12.6 8.7 3.9 3.5 1.710 5.4 75.8 80.7
2002 16,105,285 202,083 142,355 59,728 12.5 8.8 3.7 1.7 1.731 5.0 76.0 80.7
2003 16,192,572 200,297 141,936 58,361 12.3 8.7 3.6 0.4 1.747 4.8 76.2 80.9
2004 16,258,032 194,007 136,553 57,454 11.9 8.4 3.5 -0.6 1.726 4.4 76.9 81.4
2005 16,305,526 187,910 136,402 51,508 11.5 8.4 3.2 -1.4 1.708 4.9 77.2 81.6
2006 16,334,210 185,057 135,372 49,685 11.3 8.3 3.0 -1.5 1.720 4.4 77.6 81.9
2007 16,357,992 181,336 133,022 48,314 11.1 8.1 2.9 0 1.718 4.1 78.0 82.3
2008 16,405,399 184,634 135,136 49,498 11.2 8.2 3.0 1.9 1.773 3.8 78.3 82.3
2009 16,485,787 184,915 134,235 50,680 11.2 8.1 3.1 2.3 1.790 3.8 78.5 82.7
2010 16,574,989 184,397 136,058 48,339 11.1 8.2 2.9 2.0 1.796 3.8 78.8 82.7
2011 16,655,799 180,060 135,741 44,319 10.8 8.1 2.7 1.8 1.759 3.6 79.2 82.8
2012 16,730,348 175,959 140,813 35,146 10.5 8.4 2.1 0.8 1.723 3.7 79.1 82.8
2013 16,779,575 171,341 141,245 30,096 10.2 8.4 1.8 1.2 1.679 3.8 79.4 83.0
2014 16,829,289 175,181 139,073 35,434 10.3 8.2 2.1 2.1 1.713 3.6 79.9 83.3
2015 16,900,726 170,510 147,134 23,376 10.0 8.7 1.3 3.3 1.658 3.3 79.7 83.1
2016 16,979,000 172,520 148,997 23,523 10.2 8.8 1.3 4.7 1.663 3.5 79.9 83.1
2017 17,081,507 169,836 150,214 19,622 9.9 8.8 1.1 4.7 1.619 3.6 80.1 83.3
2018 17,181,084 168,525 153,363 15,162 9.8 8.9 0.9 5.0 1.586 3.5 80.2 83.3
2019 17,282,163 169,680 151,885 17,795 9.8 8.8 1.0 6.3 1.574 3.6 80.5 83.6
2020 17,407,585 168,681 168,678 3 9.7 9.7 0.0 3.9 1.545 3.8 79.7 83.1
2021 17,475,415 179,441 170,972 8,469 10.2 9.8 0.4 6.2 1.624 3.3 79.7 83.0
2022 17,590,672 167,504 170,112 -2,608 9.5 9.6 -0.1 12.7 1.487 3.2 80.1 83.1
2023 17,811,291 163,818 169,320 -5,502 9.3 9.5 -0.2 8.2 1.43
2024 17,954,000

Current vital statistics[edit]

Source: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek[21]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January 2023 13,176 16,564 -3,388
January 2024 13,582 16,825 -3,243
Difference Increase +406 (+3.08%) Negative increase +261 (+1.58%) Increase +145

Structure of the population[edit]

Population by Sex and Age Group (Census 01.I.2011): [22]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 8 243 482 8 412 317 16 655 799 100
0–4 472 308 450 798 923 106 5.54
5–9 503 882 481 347 985 229 5.92
10–14 510 974 487 766 998 740 6.00
15–19 514 830 491 914 1 006 744 6.04
20–24 522 667 512 062 1 034 729 6.21
25–29 504 117 497 421 1 001 538 6.01
30–34 503 323 501 441 1 004 764 6.03
35–39 560 289 561 279 1 121 568 6.73
40–44 653 664 642 261 1 295 925 7.78
45–49 655 302 642 990 1 298 292 7.79
50–54 601 040 595 279 1 196 319 7.18
55–59 546 952 543 295 1 090 247 6.55
60–64 553 446 550 206 1 103 652 6.63
65-69 390 725 399 835 790 560 4.75
70-74 302 542 334 976 637 518 3.83
75-79 219 108 280 213 499 321 3.00
80-84 139 348 221 480 360 828 2.17
85-89 66 949 145 107 212 056 1.27
90-94 18 812 57 379 76 191 0.46
95+ 3 204 15 268 18 472 0.11
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 1 487 164 1 419 911 2 907 075 17.45
15–64 5 615 630 5 538 148 11 153 778 66.97
65+ 1 140 688 1 454 258 2 594 946 15.58
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.I.2021): [22]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 8 686 536 8 788 879 17 475 415 100
0–4 439 516 418 110 857 626 4.91
5–9 461 357 438 470 899 827 5.15
10–14 488 746 465 532 954 278 5.46
15–19 527 596 504 139 1 031 735 5.90
20–24 563 311 544 175 1 107 486 6.34
25–29 575 570 557 372 1 132 942 6.48
30–34 570 427 556 062 1 126 489 6.45
35–39 530 309 523 777 1 054 086 6.03
40–44 516 034 517 454 1 033 488 5.91
45–49 562 979 569 595 1 132 574 6.48
50–54 644 880 641 251 1 286 131 7.36
55–59 633 972 629 585 1 263 557 7.23
60–64 566 770 570 891 1 137 661 6.51
65-69 496 148 507 630 1 003 778 5.74
70-74 474 058 496 978 971 036 5.56
75-79 303 655 340 405 644 060 3.69
80-84 196 115 253 008 449 123 2.57
85-89 97 307 160 502 257 809 1.48
90-94 31 861 73 187 105 048 0.60
95-99 5 514 18 631 24 145 0.14
100-104 406 2 040 2 446 0.01
105-109 5 84 89 <0.01
110+ 0 1 1 <0.01
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 1 389 619 1 322 112 2 711 731 15.52
15–64 5 691 848 5 614 301 11 306 149 64.70
65+ 1 605 069 1 852 466 3 457 535 19.79

Migration and origin groups[edit]

Between 1590 and 1800 the estimated share of foreign-born population was consistently above 5%.[23]

According to Eurostat, in 2010 there were 1,800,000 foreign-born residents in the Netherlands, corresponding to 11.1% of the total population. Of these, 1,400,000 (8.5%) were born outside the EU (including those from Dutch colonies) and 428,000 (2.6%) were born in another EU member state. The most common countries of birth being: Belgium, Germany, Poland and the United Kingdom.[24] On 1 January 2016, 26,2% of persons aged 0–50 had at least one parent born in a foreign country. 11,4% of persons aged 0–50 of 'Dutch background' belonged to the 'third generation', the majority descending from Western immigrants. The third generation constitutes persons born from two second generation immigrants or one second generation immigrant and one person with a Dutch background. First and second generation immigrants and the third generation were 34,5% of the population aged 0–50.[25]

As the result of immigration from overseas, the Netherlands have a sizeable minority of non-indigenous peoples. There is also a considerable level of emigration, in majority consisting of former immigrants. In 2005, some 121,000 people left the country, while 94,000 entered it. Out of a total of 101,150 people immigrating into the Netherlands in 2006, 66,658 were from Europe, Oceania, the Americas or Japan, and 34,492 were from other (mostly developing) countries. Out of a total of 132,470 emigrants, 94,834 were going to Europe, Oceania, the Americas or Japan and 37,636 to other countries.[26]

A large number[23] of immigrants come from countries in Western Europe, mostly from the neighbouring countries of Germany and Belgium. There were five subsequent waves of immigration to the Netherlands in recent history.

  1. In the late-1940s and into the 1950s, following the end of the Second World War, people from the newly independent Republic of Indonesia repatriated or emigrated to the Netherlands - mainly Indo-European (people of mixed European and Indonesian ancestry of Dutch nationality) and supporters of the Republic of South Maluku.
  2. Between 1960 and 1974, migrants from Greece, Portugal, Spain, Turkey and Morocco came to work in the Netherlands as guest workers. They were expected to return to their own country and many did, but others remained and in the 1970s and 1980s were joined by their families. Until 2004, when marriage immigration was restricted, their children usually married others from their home country.[citation needed]
  3. After 1974, people emigrated from the newly independent Suriname and from the Netherlands Antilles, which remained part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In 1974, about forty thousand Surinamese migrated while still retaining Dutch citizenship; between 1975 and 1980 there was a transitional arrangement allowing migration. Antilleans have the Dutch nationality and behave like typical labour migrants, travelling to and from the country in response to the employment available.
  4. During the 1970s and 1980s, the number of asylum seekers was low, consisting e.g. of Chileans fleeing from political oppression and/or persecution. In the 1990s, asylum migration sharply increased,[27] largely consisting of Yugoslavs, Somalis, Iraqis, Iranians, Ethiopians, Eritreans, Afghans and Vietnamese, fleeing war or famine.[28] Between 2000 and 2014 asylum migration strongly decreased due to the strict "Cohen Law". However, the Syrian Civil War from 2011 resulted in a large influx of Syrian asylum seekers in 2015 and 2016; about ninety thousand Syrians had been granted asylum by 2018.
  5. Since the 2000s, migrant workers and their families from the newly joined EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe, including: Poland, Romania and Bulgaria, and non-EU states Moldova, Ukraine and the former Yugoslavia.[citation needed] In addition, a number of Spaniards, Greeks, Italians, and Portuguese also migrated due to the impact of the Great Recession in those countries. In 2005, non-Western ethnic population comprised 1.7 million individuals, about 10% of the population in the country.[29]

Illegal immigration to the Netherlands results in automatic deportation[30] but this is often not enforced for various reasons such as unknown country of origin, etc. Many Dutch provinces in 2012 had quotas for deporting illegal immigrants.[31][32][33][34]

By 2017, persons with an immigration background, both western and non-western, formed a majority in Amsterdam (2011), Rotterdam (2013) and The Hague, the three largest cities of the Netherlands.[35]

In 2005, the governmental Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau in its annual report, noted recurring integration problems for ethnic minorities. While during the economic boom of the 1990s their unemployment and dependence on welfare had strongly decreased, the economic downturn between 2001 and 2004 disproportionally affected immigrant groups. This would be explained by their functioning as a labour reserve, by their lower educational levels and by lower language skills. The report also noted that per capita social interactions between native Dutch and immigrant populations tended to decline over time, partly explainable by the size growth of immigrant groups. Integration levels strongly varied between groups. Surinamese and Antilleans were well economically integrated, but the latter less so culturally. Cultural integration was limited for Turks, but better for Moroccans. Of the asylum seekers, Somalis were among the least integrated into Dutch society, while Iranians were the best integrated with the highest education levels and modern lifestyles. Though the educational levels of the second generation were a significant improvement over those of the first generation, they still lagged behind the native Dutch who themselves on average had been attending ever higher school types. While half of all native Dutch pupils in 2005 proceeded to higher secondary education (HAVO and VWO), for Turks and Moroccans the share was a fifth and for Somali pupils even lower.[29]

In 2007, non-Western groups were generally socio-economically disadvantaged and of the four largest non-Western groups, Turks and Moroccans were the most disadvantaged. In 2006 38.7% of Moroccans and 43.9% of Turks aged 15–64 were in employment, their unemployment rate was about four times the level of the native Dutch (17.2% for Moroccans and 15.1% for Turks), and 30% received some type of social welfare.[23]

After 2008, the financial crisis and the eurocrisis again hit immigrant groups particularly hard. In 2012, at 12% non-Western migrants were six times more likely than native Dutch to receive social welfare benefits, with 2% for the Dutch.[36]

Western and non-Western fraction of low-income households and source of income. Data sourced from Statistics Netherlands.[37]

According to a 2010 Statistics Netherlands report, the third generation of non-Western immigrants was predominantly young with 80% being younger than 15, while growing with 10% each year. The third generation have a similar employment rate as the native Dutch and receive a similar amount of social benefits. The third non-Western generation follow adult education more frequently than both the native Dutch and non-Western immigrants. The non-Western immigrant population as a whole has 1.5 to 2 times the benefit dependence compared to the natives. The non-Western third generation had a rate slightly higher than the native Dutch as crime suspects, but lower than for non-Western immigrants as a whole.[38][39]

According to Statistics Netherlands, nearly 53% of refugee households have a low income, six times the Netherlands average (8.2%).[37] For Syrian and Eritrean households the share is about 80%. At 33% the poverty risk is lowest among Iranian refugee households. The group of Syrian households at risk of poverty grew from ten thousand (76% of all Syrian households in 2016) to eighteen thousand (79% of all Syrian households) in 2018. Households of Polish, Romanian or Bulgarian origin have a greater than average risk of poverty even though households from these Eastern European countries generally depend on work for their income. Migrant workers from Eastern Europe generally perform low-skilled work while migrants from Western Europe are often highly educated.[37]

Immigrants from foreign countries are divided into several ethnic groups. For example, there are both Russians and Chechens from Russia, Turks and Kurds from Turkey, Serbs and Albanians from Serbia and immigrants from Iran are divided into Persians, Azeris and Kurds.[40]

National origins[edit]

Population of the Netherlands by country of birth

Pie chart showing the breakdown of the Netherlands by national origin (2022)

  Dutch (74.77%)
  Turks (2.44%)
  Moroccans (2.38%)
  Surinamese (2.05%)
  Indos (1.99%)
  Germans (1.95%)
  Poles (1.26%)
  Curaçao (0.77%)
  Belgians (0.7%)
  Other (11.69%)

As of 1 January 2022, 4 438 900 citizens are of non-Dutch/Frisian origin. A majority of these (50,86%) are from seven backgrounds alone: Turks (inc. Kurds), Moroccans (inc. Berbers), Surinamese, Indonesians (inc. Moluccans), Germans, Poles and Curaçao.[41]

With the huge expansion of the European Union during the 2000s, the Netherlands has seen a rise in the number of immigrants coming from new member states. Migrant workers from these countries are estimated to be about 100,000 as of 2007.[42] Legal migrants from new EU-member states doubled between 2007–11 to 200,000,[43] with estimates totaling up to 300,000. Of the Poles who initially moved to the Netherlands in 2004, about a quarter had returned to Poland by 2006.[44] In addition, a large number of Syrians moved to the Netherlands in the 2010s mostly as refugees, with the population increasing seven-fold between 2014 and 2019. Both Poles and Syrians have overtaken the population of Antilleans during the decade.[41] More than 36,000 Roma live in the Netherlands.[45] Dutch Roma, Sinti and Dutch Jews were decimated by the Holocaust.[46][47] However, the Jewish population has seen growth in the Netherlands in recent years.[48]

As of 1 January 2022:[41]

National origins/Migration background 2022 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2010
Dutch (& Frisians) 13 151 772 (74.77%) 13 169 507 (75.36%) 13 186 880 (75.75%) 13 196 025 (76.36%) 13 209 225 (76.88%) 13 218 754 (77.39%) 13 226 829 (77.90%) 13 235 405 (78.31%) 13 234 545 (78.64%) 13 236 494 (78.89%) 13 236 618 (79.12%) 13 215 458 (79.73%)
Turks (& Kurds) 429 978 (2.444%) 422 030 (2.415%) 416 864 (2.395%) 409 877 (2.37%) 404 459 (2.35%) 400 367 (2.34%) 397 471 (2.34%) 396 555 (2.35%) 396 414 (2.36%) 392 923 (2.34%) 392 923 (2.35%) 384 164 (2.32%)
Moroccans (& Berbers) 419 272 (2.38%) 414 186 (2.37%) 408 864 (2.35%) 402 492 (2.33%) 396 539 (2.31%) 391 088 (2.29%) 385 761 (2.27%) 380 755 (2.25%) 374 996 (2.23%) 368 838 (2.20%) 362 954 (2.17%) 349 270 (2.11%)
Surinamese 359 814 (2.05%) 358 266 (2.05%) 356 402 (2.05%) 353 909 (2.05%) 351 681 (2.05%) 349 978 (2.05%) 349 022 (2.06%) 348 662 (2.06%) 348 291 (2.07%) 344 734 (2.05%) 344 734 (2.06%) 342 016 (2.06%)
Indos (& Moluccans) 349 301 (1.986%) 352 266 (2.016%) 356 029 (2.045%) 358 773 (2.08%) 361 594 (2.10%) 364 328 (2.13%) 366 849 (2.16%) 369 661 (2.19%) 372 233 (2.21%) 374 847 (2.23%) 377 618 (2.26%) 382 319 (2.31%)
Germans 342 925 (1.95%) 345 746 (1.98%) 349 284 (2.006%) 351 552 (2.03%) 354 136 (2.06%) 356 875 (2.09%) 360 116 (2.12%) 364 125 (2.15%) 368 512 (2.19%) ? ? 379 017 (2.29%)
Poles 220 980 (1.26%) 209 278 (1.2%) 198 024 (1.14%) 185 497 (1.07%) 173 050 (1.01%) 161 158 (0.94%) 149 831 (0.88%) 137 794 (0.82%) 123 003 (0.73%) 111 121 (0.66%) 100 775 (0.60%) 77 178 (0.47%)
Antilleans 165 477 (0.94%) 160 429 (0.92%) 158 487 (0.91%) 155 492 (0.90%) 153 469 (0.90%) 150 981 (0.89%) 148 926 (0.88%) 146 855 (0.87%) 145 499 (0.87%) 143 992 (0.86%) 138 113 (0.83%) 134 486 (0.82%)
Syrians 126 260 (0.72%) 113 126 (0.65%) 105 440 (0.61%) 98 090 (0.57%) 90 771 (0.53%) 72 903 (0.43%) 43 838 (0.26%) 22 568 (0.13%) 13 744 (0.08%) 11 665 (0.07%) 11 025 (0.07%) 10 263 (0.06%)
Belgians 123 136 (0.7%) 122 197 (0.7%) 121 019 (0.695%) 119 769 (0.69%) 118 725 (0.69%) 117 495 (0.69%) 116 389 (0.69%) 115 687 (0.68%) ? ? ? ?
Former Soviets[a] ? 110 877 92 128 (0.53%) 84 498 (0.49%) 80 013 (0.47%) 76 102 (0.45%) ? ? ? ?
British 97 844 (0.56%) 97 614 (0.56%) 91 154 (0.53%) 88 390 (0.51%) 86 293 (0.51%) 84 466 (0.50%) 82 879 (0.49%) ? ? ? ?
Former Yugoslavs[b] ? 91 951 87 536 (0.51%) 85 504 (0.50%) 84 243 (0.50%) 83 261 (0.49%) ? ? ? ?
Chinese 84 453 (0.48%) 81 735 (0.47%) 77 648 (0.45%) 74 234 (0.43%) 71 229 (0.42%) 68 697 (0.40%) 66 088 (0.39%) ? ? ? ?
Iraqis 67 757 (0.39%) 66 216 (0.38%) 63 008 (0.36%) 61 255 (0.36%) 59 497 (0.35%) 56 269 (0.33%) ? ? ? ? ?
Indians 65 399 (0.37%) 58 460 (0.33%) 48 724 (0.28%) 36 818 (0.22%) 32 682 (0.19%) ? ? ? ? ?
Italians 64 398 (0.37%) 61 367 (0.35%) 56 645 (0.33%) 53 703 (0.31%) 50 925 (0.30%) 48 366 (0.28%) ? ? ? ? ?
Afghans 54 991 (0.31%) 51 830 (0.3%) 49 122 (0.28%) 47 776 (0.28%) 46 701 (0.27%) 44 339 (0.26%) ? ? ? ? ?
Spaniards 54 269 (0.31%) 50 466 (0.29%) 46 741 (0.27%) 42 926 (0.25%) 41 572 (0.24%) ? ? ? ? ?
French 52 389 (0.3%) 50 207 (0.29%) 47 009 (0.27%) 45 558 (0.27%) 43 836 (0.26%) 42 070 (0.25%) ? ? ? ? ?
Iranians (Persians, Azeris and Kurds) 52 099 (0.3%) 49 723 (0.29%) 44 379 (0.26%) 42 464 (0.25%) 40 893 (0.24%) 38 458 (0.23%) ? ? ? ? ?
Bulgarians 50 305 (0.29%) 44 874 (0.26%) 40 216 (0.23%) 34 809 (0.20%) 27 729 (0.16%) 25 520 (0.15%) ? ? ? ? ?
Americans 49 246 (0.28%) 47 408 (0.27%) 44 399 (0.26%) 40 022 (0.23%) 38 494 (0.23%) ? ? ? ? ?
Romanians 48 563 (0.28%) 43 161 (0.25%) 39 340 (0.225%) 34 185 (0.20%) 25 551 (0.15%) 23 020 (0.14%) ? ? ? ? ?
Somalis 41 064 (0.23%) 40 701 (0.23%) 40 251 (0.23%) 39 947 (0.23%) 39 737 (0.23%) 39 457 (0.23%) 39 465 (0.23%) ? ? ? ? ?
Bosnians 39 265 (0.22%) 38 927 (0.22%) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Brazilians 38 125 (0.22%) 35 285 (0.2%) 33 348 (0.19%) 30 104 (0.17%) 24 725 (0.14%) 23 675 (0.14%) ? ? ? ? ?
South Africans ( Afrikaners) 31 693 (0.18%) 28 562 (0.16%) 23 738 (0.14%) 20 859 (0.12%) 19 877 (0.12%) ? ? ? ? ?
Greeks 31 480 (0.18%) 28 856 (0.16%) 28 100 (0.16%) 25 709 (0.15%) 22 141 (0.13%) 20 769 (0.12%) ? ? ? ? ?
Portuguese 31 306 (0.18%) 29 092 (0.17%) 28 802 (0.17%) 27 450 (0.16%) 25 637 (0.15%) 24 930 (0.15%) ? ? ? ? ?
Egyptians 29 483 (0.17%) 28 399 (0.16%) 26 152 (0.15%) 23 956 (0.14%) 23 198 (0.14%) ? ? ? ? ?
Ethiopians 28 635 (0.16%) 27 139 (0.15%) 23 777 (0.14%) 19 528 (0.11%) 16 347 (0.10%) ? ? ? ? ?
Hungarians 28 210 (0.16%) 26 853 (0.15%) 24 898 (0.14%) 22 870 (0.13%) 22 080 (0.13%) ? ? ? ? ?
Pakistanis 27 261 (0.15%) 25 938 (0.15%) 23 855 (0.14%) 22 897 (0.13%) 22 137 (0.13%) 21 447 (0.13%) ? ? ? ? ?
Ghanaians 26 694 (0.15%) 25 999 (0.15%) 24 460 (0.14%) 23 430 (0.14%) 23 168 (0.14%) ? ? ? ? ?
Filipinos 26 658 (0.15%) 25 365 (0.14%) 23 128 (0.13%) 22 000 (0.13%) 20 937 (0.12%) 20 073 (0.12%) ? ? ? ? ?
Vietnamese (Kinh) 25 135 (0.14%) 24 594 (0.14%) 23 488 (0.14%) 22 023 (0.13%) 21 435 (0.13%) ? ? ? ? ?
Thai 23 390 (0.13%) 22 642 (0.13%) 21 364 (0.12%) 20 106 (0.12%) 19 513 (0.11%) ? ? ? ? ?
Cape Verdeans 23 150 (0.13%) 22 980 (0.13%) 22 632 (0.13%) 22 285 (0.13%) 22 157 (0.13%) ? ? ? ? ?
Colombians 21 853 (0.12%) 20 515 (0.12%) 18 351 (0.11%) 16 607 (0.10%) 15 892 (0.09%) ? ? ? ? ?
Hong Kongers 18 363 (0.1%) 18 332 (0.10%) 18 367 (0.11%) 18 357 (0.11%) 18 300 (0.11%) ? ? ? ? ?
Australians 17 722 (0.10%) 17 688 (0.10%) 17 349 (0.10%) 16 597 (0.10%) 16 127 (0.09%) ? ? ? ? ?
Canadians 17 266 (0.1%) 16 997 (0.10%) 16 614 (0.10%) 16 240 (0.09%) 15 944 (0.09%) 15 625 (0.09%) ? ? ? ? ?
Austrians 16 216 (0.09%) 16 130 (0.09%) 16 055 (0.09%) 15 777 (0.09%) 15 674 (0.09%) ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of Sub-Saharan Africa ? 108 621 (0.63%) 97 026 (0.57%) 91 797 (0.54%) ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of Europe ? 77 245 (0.45%) 68 592 (0.40%) 65 849 (0.39%) ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of Americas (except Caribbean) ? 52 425 (0.30) 47 048 (0.28%) 45 256 (0.27%) ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of North Africa and Middle East ? 55 180 (0.32%) 46 231 (0.27%) 44 059 (0.26%) ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of East and Southeast Asia ? 38 279 (0.22%) 34 562 (0.20%) 33 473 (0.20%) ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of Caribbean ? 28 861 (0.17%) 21 514 (0.13%) 20 956 (0.12%) ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of South Asia ? 18 672 (0.11%) 17 448 (0.10%) 16 762 (0.10%) ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of Oceania ? 6 479 (0.04%) 6 062 (0.04%) 5 916 (0.03%) ? ? ? ? ?
Others ? 1 094 826 (6.48%) 1 587 433 (9.43%) 1 437 462 (8.57%) 1 437 462 (8.59%) 1 387 255 (8.37%)
Total 17 590 672 17 475 415 17 407 575 17 282 163 17 181 084 17 081 507 16 979 120 16 900 726 16 829 289 16 779 575 16 730 348 16 577 612
Region of the World[49] 2023[50] 2022[49] 2021 2019 2018 2017 2016
Netherlands 12 978 154 (72.86%) 13 013 279 (73.97%) 13 169 507 (75.36%) 13 196 025 (76.36%) 13 209 225 (76.88%) 13 218 754 (77.39%) 13 226 829 (77.90%)
Europe (Except Netherlands) 1 617 454 (9.08%) 1 477 069 (8.39%) 1 237 807 (7.25%) 1 204 908 (7.10%)
Asia 1 594 551 (8.95%) 1 523 493 (8.66%)
Americas 804 097 (4.51%) 815,554 (4.63%)
Africa 785 016 (4.41%) 761,277 (4.32%)
North Africa and Middle East 1 148 300 (6.64%) 1 081 636 (6.33%) 1 033 393 (6.09%)
East and South East Asia 561 047 (3.25%) 551 542 (3.23%) 548 340 (3.23%)
Caribbean and Suriname 538 262 (3.11%) 524 961 (3.07%) 520 959 (3.07%)
Sub-Saharan Africa 243 175 (1.41%) 222 585 (1.30%) 212 811 (1.25%)
Americas (Except Caribbean and Suriname) 161 893 (0.94%) 144 346 (0.85%) 138 942 (0.82%)
South Asia 91 251 (0.53%) 76 403 (0.45%) 70 891 (0.42%)
Oceania 32 019 (0.18%) 24 423 (0.14%) 24 390 (0.14%) 22 828 (0.14%) 22 659 (0.13%) 22 043 (0.13%)
Immigrants and people of migrant backgrounds
Nationality Population (2022)[51]
 Turkey 429,978
 Morocco 419,272
 Suriname 359,814
 Indonesia 349,301
European Union Germany 342,925
European Union Poland 220,980
 Syria 126,260
European Union Belgium 123,136
 United Kingdom 97,844
 China 84,453
 Iraq 67,757
 India 65,399
European Union Italy 55,001
 Afghanistan 54,991
European Union Spain 54,269
European Union France 52,389
 Iran 52,099
European Union Bulgaria 50,305
 United States 49,246
European Union Romania 48,563
 Somalia 41,064
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 39,265
 Brazil 38,125
 South Africa 31,693
European Union Greece 31,480
European Union Portugal 31,306
 Egypt 29,483
 Ethiopia 28,635
European Union Hungary 28,210
 Pakistan 27,261
 Ghana 26,694
 Philippines 26,658
 Cape Verde 23,150
 Thailand 23,390
 Colombia 21,853
 Hong Kong 18,363
 Australia 17,722
 Canada 17,266
European Union Austria 16,216
Net immigrants in the Netherlands in 2022[52]
Rank Country Number Percentage
1  Ukraine 82,767 37
2  Syria 16,276 7.2
3  Turkey 12,040 5.4
4  India 10,903 4.9
5 European Union Poland 10,025 4.5
6 European Union Romania 6,043 2.7
7 European Union Bulgaria 5,527 2.5
8  South Africa 4,616 2
9  Afghanistan 3,278 1.7
10 European Union Greece 3,270 1.7
Top 10 total 154,745 69.1
Other 69,053 30.9
Total 223,798 100

Emigration[edit]

The Netherlands has seen considerable emigration. In the 1950s, 560,000[citation needed] people migrated to the United States, South Africa, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, leaving their war-torn and overpopulated home country behind. At least 60,000 of these migrants were Indo-European (mixed Dutch-Indonesian) repatriates that moved on, mostly to the United States, after being repatriated to the Netherlands from the former Dutch East Indies during and after the Indonesian Revolution.

In 2005, some 121,000 people migrated from the Netherlands. There is considerable migration towards neighbouring states, Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom and to the Netherlands Antilles. Furthermore, almost half of the current emigration consists of people returning to their country of birth, including rejected asylum seekers, after the more stringent migration laws were implemented.

Education by background[edit]

According to a 2016 study by Statistics Netherlands, students with a non-western background generally study at a lower level of secondary education. 48 percent of those with a Dutch background were at HAVO or VWO level at third year, compared to 23 percent for Dutch Turks, 28 percent for Dutch Moroccans, 35 percent for Dutch Surinamese and 31 percent for Dutch Antilleans. Some backgrounds fared better: over 40 percent of Dutch Afghans studied at HAVO/VWO level, and for Dutch Iranians the rate was 50 percent, which was above native Dutch students.[53]

Employment and income[edit]

Unemployment, youth ages 15–24

total: 7.2%. Country comparison to the world: 130th
male: 7.7%
female: 6.6% (2018 est.)

Religion[edit]

In 2013, Statistics Netherlands found that 26% of the population identified as Roman Catholic, 16% as Protestant, 5% as Muslim, and 6% as "other" (the last includes other Christian denominations, Hindus 0.6%, Jews 0.1%, and Buddhists 0.4%). The agency interviewed 355,237 people in the period 2010–2013. [54] In 2019, the Central Bureau of Statistics reported that for the first time non-religious people were in the majority in the Netherlands. Only 49% of people older than 15 years reported to be religious; in 2012 that was still 54%. The largest religion was still Catholicism (24%), while 5% identified with Islam.[55]

Religion in Netherlands (2018) by Statista[56]

  No religion (53%)
  Roman Catholic (22%)
  Muslim (5%)
  Other religions (5%)

Language[edit]

The main language is Dutch, while Frisian (known as West Frisian outside of the Netherlands) is also a recognized language in the province of Friesland and is used by the government and schools there. Several dialects of Low Saxon (Nedersaksisch in Dutch) are spoken in much of the north and east and are recognized by the Netherlands as regional languages according to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Another group of dialects granted the status of regional language is Limburgish, which is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg. Major immigrant languages are Indonesian, Turkish, Arabic, Berber, Papiamento, German and Polish.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Primarily Estonians, Lithuanians, Latvians, Russians and Ukrainians
  2. ^ Bosniaks & Bosnians, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs, Slovenes, and other Yugoslavs collectively
  3. ^ a b c In 2004, the Dutch Reformed Church (NHK) and the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (GKN) merged to form the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (PKN) and officially no longer exist. However, many people still tend to give their older affiliation even after the merger. People who declared themselves simply as belonging to the Protestant Church in the Netherlands did not give an information about belonging to an older affiliation.[57]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (CBS) (January 2023). "Population counter". Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  2. ^ CBS Statline - Population; history. Statistics Netherlands. Retrieved on 2009-03-08.
  3. ^ "CBS Statline". opendata.cbs.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  4. ^ "Netherlands Population 2019", World Population Review
  5. ^ Note: Crude migration change % is a trend analysis, an extrapolation, based average population change (current year minus previous) minus natural change of the current year (see table vital statistics). As average population is an estimate of the population in the middle of the year and not end of the year.
  6. ^ "Netherlands Population - Our World in Data". www.ourworldindata.org.
  7. ^ "Population counter of the Netherlands". Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  8. ^ Netherlands, Statistics (September 2003). "Largest families in Urk". Cbs.nl. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  9. ^ Netherlands, Statistics (15 February 2008). "Population growth 46 thousand in 2007". Cbs.nl. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  10. ^ http://www.cbs.nl/nl-NL/menu/publicaties/periodieken/bevolkingstrends/archief/2003/2003-k3-b15-pub.htm[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 June 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Bevolkingsprognose 2007–2014: tijdelijk hogere groei" (PDF). Cbs.nl. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  13. ^ Charles F. Westoff; Tomas Frejka. "Fertility and Religiousness Among European Muslims". Paa2007.princeton.edu. Archived from the original on 28 June 2007. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation, archived from the original on 7 August 2018, retrieved 1 February 2019
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Life expectancy". Our World in Data. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  16. ^ "CBS Statline". opendata.cbs.nl.
  17. ^ "CBS Statline". opendata.cbs.nl.
  18. ^ "Netherlands" (PDF). oecd.org.
  19. ^ "CBS Statistics Netherlands". Archived from the original on 14 November 2010.
  20. ^ Population; key figures, CBS.nl/Statline, visited August 25 2023
  21. ^ "Population dynamics; month and year". Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. 30 November 2023.
  22. ^ a b "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 10 May 2023.
  23. ^ a b c "Focus migration - country profile - Netherlands". focus-migration.hwwi.de. Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsinstitut (HWWI). November 2007. Archived from the original on 30 April 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  24. ^ VASILEVA, Katya. "6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad (34/2011)" (PDF). Eurostat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2012.
  25. ^ Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, [Wie zijn de derde generatie?. https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2016/47/wie-zijn-de-derde-generatie-] Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.
  26. ^ "CBS StatLine - External migration; sex, age (31 dec), marital status and country of birth". cbs.nl.
  27. ^ "Substantial increase asylum seekers". cbs.nl. 29 January 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  28. ^ Nieuwe etnische groepen in Nederland. Een onderzoek onder vluchtelingen en statushouders uit Afghanistan, Iran, Ethiopië, Eritrea, Somalië en Vietnam.
  29. ^ a b "Jaarrapport Integratie 2005 - SCP Summary". www.scp.nl (in Dutch). pp. 1–3. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  30. ^ "Dutch float 'migrant prison' scheme". BBC. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  31. ^ "Anti-immigrant website fans flames in the Netherlands". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  32. ^ "Dutch Police to Scan Fingerprints in Checks for Illegal Immigrants". Voice of America. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  33. ^ "Government gets tougher with illegal immigrants". Radio Netherlands. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  34. ^ "Clash over illegal alien arrest quota". Radio Netherlands. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  35. ^ Statistiek, Centraal Bureau voor de. "CBS". Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (in Dutch). Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  36. ^ "Annual Integration Report 2013 Summary". www.scp.nl. SCP. p. 191. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  37. ^ a b c Netherlands, Statistics (12 November 2018). "Half of refugee households at risk of poverty". Statistics Netherlands. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  38. ^ Steven de Jong, "PVV-plan is prachtig. Derde generatie kan imago ‘allochtoon’ opkrikken", NRC Handelsblad, 29 June 2011
  39. ^ "Verkenning niet-westerse derde generatie" (PDF). Papers van het Centrum voor Beleidsstatistiek. Den Haag: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek: 5 / Samenvattning. 2010. ISSN 1877-3028. Archived from the original on 16 November 2010.
  40. ^ Netherlands, Statistics (2 June 2023). "CBS". Statistics Netherlands.
  41. ^ a b c "CBS StatLine - Bevolking; generatie, geslacht, leeftijd en herkomstgroepering, 1 januari". Statline.cbs.nl. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  42. ^ "Donner: 100.000 Oost-Europeanen werken in Nederland". Volkskrant.nl. 25 November 2007. Retrieved 25 November 2007.
  43. ^ "Aantal Midden- en Oost-Europeanen in vijf jaar tijd verdubbeld". CBS. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  44. ^ "Immigratie Oost-Europeanen blijft hoog". CBS. 28 November 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  45. ^ "Roma and Travelers in Netherlands fear for their culture". 15 July 2019.
  46. ^ Rutland, Suzanne D. (2001). "A Reassessment of the Dutch Record during the Holocaust". Remembering for the Future. pp. 527–542. doi:10.1007/978-1-349-66019-3_34. ISBN 978-0-333-80486-5.
  47. ^ "Netherlands | IHRA".
  48. ^ "Institute for Jewish Policy Research: Netherlands".
  49. ^ a b "CBS Statline". opendata.cbs.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  50. ^ "CBS Statline".
  51. ^ "CBS Statline". opendata.cbs.nl.
  52. ^ "CBS Statline". opendata.cbs.nl.
  53. ^ Jaarraport Integratie 2016 (PDF), CBS
  54. ^ Schmeets, Hans (2014). De religieuze kaart van Nederland, 2010-2013 (PDF). Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. p. 4. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  55. ^ "Niet-religieuze Nederlander is nu officieel in de meerderheid". 22 October 2018.
  56. ^ "Netherlands: Population, by religion 2010-2018".
  57. ^ Schmeets, Hans; Mensvoort, Carly van (2011). Religieuze betrokkenheid van bevolkingsgroepen, 2010–2014 (PDF). Centraal Bureau voor der Statistiek. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2018.

External links[edit]