Indian National Congress (Organisation)

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Indian National Congress (Organisation)
Split fromINC
Merged intoJanata Party
Political positionCentre-right[3]
National affiliationJanata Morcha
Colours  Turquoise
Election symbol
Woman spinning wheel

The Indian National Congress (Organisation) also known as Congress (O) or Syndicate/Old Congress was a political party in India formed when the Congress party split following the expulsion of Indira Gandhi.

On 12 November 1969, the Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi was expelled from the Congress party for violating party discipline. The party finally split with Indira Gandhi setting up a rival organisation Indian National Congress (Requisitionists), which came to be known as Congress (R) or Indicate . In the All India Congress Committee, 446 of its 705 members walked over to Indira's side.[4] K Kamaraj and later Morarji Desai were the leaders of the INC(O).

INC(O) led governments in Bihar under Bhola Paswan Shastri, Karnataka under Veerendra Patil, and in Gujarat under Hitendra K Desai. It was also a part of the Janata Morcha that ruled Gujarat under Babubhai J. Patel from 1975–1976 during the emergency era.

The split can in some ways be seen as a left-wing/right-wing division. Indira wanted to use a populist agenda in order to mobilise popular support for the party. The regional party elites, who formed the INC(O), stood for a more right-wing agenda, and distrusted Soviet help.

In the 1971 general election, the Indian National Congress (O) won about 10% of the vote and 16 Lok Sabha seats, against 44% of the vote and 352 seats for Indira's Indian National Congress (R). In March 1977, the party fought the post-Emergency election under the banner of Janata Party.

The Janata Party alliance inflicted crushing defeat to Indira's Congress Party. Nevertheless, the total vote share of Congress (O) in 1977 was almost halved from 1971 and they lost three seats. Later the same year, INC(O) formally merged with the Bharatiya Lok Dal, Bharatiya Jan Sangh, Socialist Party of India, Swatantra Party and others to form the Janata Party. Congress (O)'s leader Morarji Desai served as the fourth Prime Minister of India from 1977 to 1979; this was India's first non-Congress government.<ref name="UK">Singh, Kuldip (11 April 1995). "OBITUARY: Morarji Desai". The Independent. Retrieved 27 June 2009.<.But this government could not run for 5 years and fell in 1979.Fresh Elections were called in 1980 and Indira's Indian National congress (R) swept the country and defeated the janata party.


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  1. ^ Paul, Sudeep (28 August 2020). "Crisis and the Congress". Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  2. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (October 2017). "The Roots and Varieties of Political Conservatism in India". Studies in Indian Politics. Sage Journals. 5 (2): 205–217. doi:10.1177/2321023017727968. S2CID 158365025.
  3. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (6 October 2017). "How Gujarat Congress embraced conservatism: The story of MK Gandhi, Indulal Yagnik and Sardar Patel". Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  4. ^ Chandra, Bipan & others (2000). India after Independence 1947-2000, New Delhi:Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-027825-7, p.236